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Homework #2 (Lexical Analyzer) solution

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COP3402: Systems Software

Homework #2 (Lexical Analyzer)
This is a team assignment (same team you had in HW1)

Goal:
You have been selected to write a compiler for the PL/0 language. In this assignment you
have to implement a lexical analyzer for the programming language PL/0. Your program
must be capable to read in a source program written in PL/0, identify some errors, and
produce, as output, the source program, the source program lexeme table, and a list of
lexemes. For an example of input and output refer to Appendix A. As follows we show
you the grammar for the programming language PL/0 using the Extended Backus-Naur
Form (EBNF).

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COP3402: Systems Software

Homework #2 (Lexical Analyzer)
This is a team assignment (same team you had in HW1)

Goal:
You have been selected to write a compiler for the PL/0 language. In this assignment you
have to implement a lexical analyzer for the programming language PL/0. Your program
must be capable to read in a source program written in PL/0, identify some errors, and
produce, as output, the source program, the source program lexeme table, and a list of
lexemes. For an example of input and output refer to Appendix A. As follows we show
you the grammar for the programming language PL/0 using the Extended Backus-Naur
Form (EBNF).
Based on Wirth’s definition for EBNF we have the following rule:
[ ] means an optional item,
{ } means repeat 0 or more times.
Terminal symbols are enclosed in quote marks.
A period is used to indicate the end of the definition of a syntactic class.
EBNF of PL/0:
program ::= block “.” .
block ::= const-declaration var-declaration proc-declaration statement.
const declaration ::= [ “const” ident “=” number {“,” ident “=” number} “;”].
var-declaration ::= [ “var” ident {“,” ident} “;”].
proc-declaration::= {“procedure” ident “;” block “;” } statement .
statement ::= [ ident “:=” expression
| “call” ident
| “begin” statement { “;” statement } “end”
| “if” condition “then” statement [“else” statement]
| “while” condition “do” statement
| “read” ident
| “write” ident
| e ] .
condition ::= “odd” expression
| expression rel-op expression.

rel-op ::= “=”|“<“|”<“|”<=”|””|”=“.
expression ::= [ “+”|”-“] term { (“+”|”-“) term}.
term ::= factor {(“*”|”/”) factor}.
factor ::= ident | number | “(” expression “)“.
number ::= digit {digit}.
ident ::= letter {letter | digit}.
digit ;;= “0” | “1” | “2” | “3” | “4” | “5” | “6” | “7” | “8” | “9“.
letter ::= “a” | “b” | … | “y” | “z” | “A” | “B” | … | “Y” | “Z”.
Example of a program written in PL/0:
var x, w;
begin
read w;
x:= 4;
if w x then
w:= w + 1
else
w:= x;
write w;
end.
Lexical Conventions for PL/0:
A numerical value is assigned to each token (internal representation) as follows:
nulsym = 1, identsym = 2, numbersym = 3, plussym = 4, minussym = 5, multsym = 6,
slashsym = 7, oddsym = 8, eqlsym = 9, neqsym = 10, lessym = 11, leqsym = 12,
gtrsym = 13, geqsym = 14, lparentsym = 15, rparentsym = 16, commasym = 17,
semicolonsym = 18, periodsym = 19, becomessym = 20, beginsym = 21, endsym = 22,
ifsym = 23, thensym = 24, whilesym = 25, dosym = 26, callsym = 27, constsym = 28,
varsym = 29, procsym = 30, writesym = 31, readsym = 32, elsesym = 33.
Reserved Words: const, var, procedure, call, begin, end, if, then, else, while, do, read,
write, odd.
Special Symbols: ‘+’, ‘-‘, ‘*’, ‘/’, ‘(‘, ‘)’, ‘=’, ’,’ , ‘.’, ‘ <’, ‘’, ‘;’ , ’:’ .
Identifiers: identsym = letter (letter | digit)*
Numbers: numbersym = (digit)+
Invisible Characters: tab, white spaces, newline
Comments denoted by: /* . . . */
Refer to Appendix B for a declaration of the token symbols that may be useful.
Constraints:
Input:
1. Identifiers can be a maximum of 11 characters in length.
2. Numbers can be a maximum of 5 digits in length.
3. Comments should be ignored and not tokenized.
4. Invisible Characters should be ignored and not tokenized.
Important Note: Input files may NOT be grammatically valid PL/0 code.
Output:
1. The token separator in the output’s Lexeme List (Refer to Appendix A) can be either
a space or a bar (‘|’).
2. In your output’s Lexeme List, identifiers must show the token and the variable name
separated by a space or bar.
3. In your output’s Lexeme List, numbers must show the token and the value separated
by a space or bar. The value must be transformed into ASCII Representation (as
discussed in class)
4. Be consistent in output. Choose either bars or spaces and stick with them.
5. The token representation of the Lexeme List will be used in the Parser (Project 3).
So, PLAN FOR IT!
6.
Detect the Following Lexical Errors:
1. Variable does not start with letter.
2. Number too long.
3. Name too long.
4. Invalid symbols.
Note: For purposes of testing the scanner, as soon as an error is detected, an error
message should be reported and the scanner continues running. But in HW3 (the
compiler) when the scanner detects an error, an error message should be detected and
the program stops.
Hint: You could create a transition diagram (DFS) to recognize each lexeme on the source
program and once accepted, generate the token otherwise emit an error message.
Assignment Instructions and Guidelines:
1. The Scanner must be written in C and must run on Eustis. If it runs in your
PC but not on Eustis, for us it does not run.
2. “The input file name should be read as a command line argument at runtime,
for example: $ ./a.out input.txt”.
3. “Program output should be printed to the screen, and should follow the
formatting of the example in Appendix A”
Submission Instructions:
Submit to Webcourse:
1. The source code of your scanner.
2. A readme document indicating how to compile and run the VM.
3. One run containing the input file, and the output file as shown in Appendix A.
4. This is a team assignment (the same team members who worked together in
HW1).
5. Only one submission per team.
6. The name of all team members must be written at the beginning of the
program.
7. Include comments in your program.
8. If you program does not follow the specifications, the grade will be zero
9. The team member(s) must be the same for all projects. In case of problems
within the team. The team will be split and each member must continue
working as a one-member team for all other projects.
10. On late submissions:
One day late 10% off.
Two days late 20% off.
After two days the grade will be zero.
11. If there is an extension, no late submissions accepted.
Appendix A:
If the input is:
var x, y;
begin
y := 3;
x := y + 56;
end.
The output will be:
Source Program:
var x, y;
begin
y := 3;
x := y + 56;
end.
Lexeme Table:
lexeme token type
var 29
x 2
, 17
y 2
; 18
begin 21
y 2
:= 20
3 3
; 18
x 2
:= 20
y 2
+ 4
56 3
; 18
end 22
. 19
Lexeme List:
29 2 x 17 2 y 18 21 2 y 20 3 3 18 2 x 20 2 y 4 3 56 18 22 19
Appendix B:
Declaration of Token Types:
typedef enum {
nulsym = 1, identsym, numbersym, plussym, minussym,
multsym, slashsym, oddsym, eqsym, neqsym, lessym, leqsym,
gtrsym, geqsym, lparentsym, rparentsym, commasym, semicolonsym,
periodsym, becomessym, beginsym, endsym, ifsym, thensym,
whilesym, dosym, callsym, constsym, varsym, procsym, writesym,
readsym , elsesym } token_type;
Example of Token Representation:
“29 2 x 17 2 y 18 21 2 x 20 2 y 4 3 56 18 22 19”
Is Equivalent:
varsym identsym x commasym identsym y semicolonsym beginsym identsym x
becomessym identsym y plussym numbersym 56 semicolonsym endsym periodsym
Appendix C:
Example of a PL/0 program:
const m = 7, n = 85;
var i,x,y,z,q,r;
procedure mult;
var a, b;
begin
a := x; b := y; z := 0;
while b 0 do
begin
if odd x then z := z+a;
a := 2*a;
b := b/2;
end
end;
begin
x := m;
y := n;
call mult;
end.