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ECES 435 Assignment 4 solution

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ECES 435
Assignment 4
All reports should be submitted as PDFs.
Part 1: Verifying an Image’s Source Using JPEG Quantization Tables
In many scenarios, it is important to determine or verify the source of a digital image. One way to do this
is by examining the metadata tags associated with an image. By default, most digital cameras append metadata
tags indicating the camera model and manufacturer to images that they capture. Unfortunately, these metadata
tags can be easily edited. As a result, a forger can falsify the source of a digital image by changing its metadata
tags to indicate that a different digital camera was used to capture the image.

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ECES 435
Assignment 4
All reports should be submitted as PDFs.
Part 1: Verifying an Image’s Source Using JPEG Quantization Tables
In many scenarios, it is important to determine or verify the source of a digital image. One way to do this
is by examining the metadata tags associated with an image. By default, most digital cameras append metadata
tags indicating the camera model and manufacturer to images that they capture. Unfortunately, these metadata
tags can be easily edited. As a result, a forger can falsify the source of a digital image by changing its metadata
tags to indicate that a different digital camera was used to capture the image.
In class, we discussed a method to verify the source of a digital image using JPEG quantization tables. By
default, most digital cameras store the images that they capture as JPEGs in order to save space. However, most
digital cameras and editing software do not use the standard JPEG quantization tables when compressing an
image. Instead, they use proprietary quantization tables that have been designed to better balance the trade-off
between file size and image quality.
Since each camera or software manufacturer uses their own set of quantization tables, a forensic investigator
can use this information to trace the source of a digital image. This is done by first reading the quantization tables
used to encode and decode a JPEG from its header information. These tables can then be compared with a list
of quantization tables used by different digital camera models and image editing software packages.
• In class, we discussed a software tool called JPEGsnoop that can be used to read the quantization tables
from a JPEG’s header. JPEGsnoop also compares these quantization tables to a list of known quantization
tables used by different cameras and image editing programs.
Download JPEGsnoop using the following link:
https://www.impulseadventure.com/dl.php?file=JPEGsnoop v1 8 0.zip
Note: JPEGsnoop is only designed to run on computers using a Windows operating system. Linux users
can reportedly run JPEGsnoop under wine and Mac users can run JPEGsnoop using CrossOver Mac.
• Use JPEGsnoop to analyze the following images: imageOrigin1.jpg, imageOrigin2.jpg, imageOrigin3.jpg, imageOrigin4.jpg, imageOrigin5.jpg, and imageOrigin6.jpg. What are the camera manufacturer and camera model reported in the metadata tags (Exif) for each image? Does each image have
metadata tags specifying the camera manufacturer and model? What are the luminance and chrominance
quantization tables for each image? Do these quantization tables match the camera reported in each image’s
metadata? If not, does JPEGsnoop report that these quantization tables match those used by any image
editing software? Furthermore, if JPEGsnoop doesn’t find a match between the quantization tables and the
metadata tags, does this mean that the image’s origin has been falsified? Why or why not?
• How could a forger fool falsify the origin of a digital image (i.e. pass the image off as having been captured
by a different camera) and fool a program like JPEGsnoop?
Part 2: Detecting JPEG Compression Using Blocking Artifacts
Because an image’s JPEG compression history can reveal a great deal of forensic information about an image, a
forger may attempt to pass off a JPEG compressed image as an image that was never compressed. One way that a
forger can attempt to do this is by decompressing a JPEG, then re-saving the resulting image in an uncompressed
format such as bitmap or tiff.
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In class, we discussed how JPEG compression leaves behind blocking fingerprints in a digital image. These
blocking fingerprints can be detected using the algorithm proposed by Fan and de Quieroz in their paper “Identification of Bitmap Compression History: JPEG Detection and Quantizer Estimation”. This algorithm operates
by measuring the difference between pixel values at the center of each 8 × 8 block of pixels and comparing it to
the difference between pixel values located at the corners of 4 separate 8 × 8 pixel blocks.
A detailed description of the algorithm is provided below:
1. For each 8 × 8 pixel block in the image, calculate the values
Z
0
(i, j) = |A − B − C + D| (1)
Z
00(i, j) = |E − F − G + H| (2)
where(i, j) denotes the block indices (i.e. the i
th block in the row direction and the j
th block in the column
direction), and A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H are the values of the pixels in the positions shown in the figure
above.
2. Calculate the normalized histogram HI (n) of Z
0 values and the normalized histogram HII (n) of the Z
00
values.
Note: A normalized histogram is calculated by dividing each histogram entry by the sum of all of the
histogram entries. The Matlab function hist can be used to calculate the histograms of K0 and K00 values.
3. Measure the strength K of the blocking fingerprints using the equation
K =
X
n
|HI (n) − HII (n)|. (3)
4. Determine if the image was previously JPEG compressed by comparing the blocking fingerprint strength to
a detection threshold η. The algorithm detects evidence of JPEG compression if K η and classifies the
image as never compressed if K ≤ η.
• Briefly explain why the histograms of K0 and K00 values should be different if an image has been JPEG
compressed.
• Write a Matlab function that calculates the implements Fan and de Quieroz’s JPEG blocking artifact detection algorithm. This function should accept the image to be examined as an input and return the value K
as an output. Additionally, this function should display the histograms HI and HII in the same plot. Please
fully comment your code and append it to your report.
• Use the function you wrote to examine the images blockArtifacts1.tif, blockArtifacts2.tif, and blockArtifacts3.tif for blocking artifacts. Use η = 0.25 as your detection threshold. Include the K value that you
measure for each image as well as plots of the histograms HI and HII in your report.
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