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# 2. Conditional statements (if/else if/else/switch).

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2. Conditional statements (if/else if/else/switch).
Nested conditional statements
2.01 George must build a spacecraft to carry some of his
crew. For this purpose, he has to make it so that there is
room for at least three astronauts, but no more than 10.
Every astronaut needs a small room that is of dimensions: 2
meters wide, 2 meters long and 40 cm – higher than the
average height of the astronauts. Write down a program that
calculates the volume of the ship, the capacity of astronaut
that can carry and print on the console if that capacity is
enough. The input is read from the console and contains
exactly 4 rows:
– In the first row is the ship’s width;
– In the second row is the length of the ship;
– In the third row is the height of the ship;
– In the fourth row is the average astronaut height;

Print on the console one line:

– The number of astronauts is between 3 and 10: “The
spacecraft holds `{number of astronauts}` astronauts.”
– If the number of astronauts is less than 3: “The
spacecraft is too small.”
– If the number of astronauts is greater than 10: “The
spacecraft is too big.”
2.02. Write a program which asks the user to enter 3 numbers
and prints whether there exist a triangle. If so, print the
type of the triangle:
a) scalene, isosceles or equaterial
b) obtuse, right-angled or acute.
2.03. Write a program which asks the user for a number n and
prints whether n is a leap year.
2.04. Manufacturers of vending machines like to make their
machines return as little as possible coins change. Write
down a program that accepts a sum – the change that has to be
returned and calculates the smallest number of coins with
which this action can take place.
2.05. Write a program which assigns to the variable k the
number of the quadrant in which the point P(x, y) is located.
And checks if point P(x, y) lies in the:
– unit square with center O(0,0);
– unit circle with center O(0,5;0,5);
2.06. Write a program which converts a decimal number lying
between 1 and 3999 to Roman numerals (string allowed).
2.07. Write a program which asks the user to enter a number
up to 3-digits and then prints its English name (string
allowed).
2.08. Write a program which asks the user for 5 numbers – a,
b, c, p, q and prints the maximum and minimum value of the
quadratic function in the range .
2.09. A student goes to an exam which starts at a specific
time (for example at 9:30). He comes to the exam room in a
given arrival time (e.g. 9:40). It is believed that the
student is in time if he arrives at the start of the exam or
up to half an hour before. If he comes earlier with more than
30 minutes, he is early. If he come after the start of the
exam, he is late. Write a program that reads the begining of
Example input Expected output Explanation
0.88 6 0.50+0.20+0.10+0.05+0.20+0.01
1.55 3 1.00+0.50+0.05
2.63 5 2.00+0.50+0.10+0.02+0.01
Example input Expected output
44 XLIV
1111 MCXI
2018 MMXVIII
f(x) = a x2 + bx + c [p; q]
Example input Expected output
3 2 1 -1 2 max=17.00
min=0.67
the exam and time of arrival and prints whether the student
arrived on time, whether he arrived early or is late and how
many hours or minutes he has came before or after the exam.
Input
The concole reads 4 unsigned integer numbers (one in each
row), entered by the user:
• The first row contains an exam hour – an integer from 0 to
23.
• The second row contains an exam minute – an integer from 0
to 59.
• The third row contains an arrival hour – an integer from 0
to 23.
• The forth row contains an arrival minute – an integer from
0 to 59.
Output
On the first row print:
• “Late”, if the student arrives after the hour of the exam.
• “On time”, if the student arrives at the exact time of the
exam or 30 minutes earlier.
• “Early”, if the student arrives 30 or more minutes after
the hour of the exam.
If the student arrives with at least one minute difference
frm the exact exam beginning, print:
• “mm minutes before the start” for arriving earlier with
less than hour.
• “hh:mm hours before the start” for arriving earliar with 1
hour ot more.
• “mm minutes after the start” for under hour delay.
• “hh:mm hours after the start” for more than 1 hour or more
delay.
Always print the minutes with two digits, for exammple:
“1:05”.

2.10. Kaloyan is a student who lives in Sofia and walks from
time to time to his hometown. He is very keen on football but
busy during business days and playing football only on
weekends and holidays. Kaloyan plays in Sofia every Saturday
when he is not at work and does not travel to his hometown,
as well as in 2/3 of festive days. He travels to his hometown
h times in the year where he plays football with his old
friends on Sunday. Kaloyan is not at work 3/4 of the weekends
he’s in Sofia. On the other hand, through the leap years,
Kaloyan plays with 15% more football than normal. We assume
that the year has exactly 48 weekends, suitable for football.
Write a program which calculates how many times Kaloyan has
played football during the year. Round up the result down to
the nearest integer (for example, 2.15 → 2; 9.95 → 9). The
input data is entered by the user as follows:
• The first line contains the word “leap” (leap year) or
“normal” (normal year).
• The second row contains an integer number p – number of
holidays in the year (which are not Saturday and Sunday).
• The third line contains an integer number h – the number of
weekends in which Kaloyan travels to his hometown.
Example input Expected output
14
00
13
55
On time
5 minutes before the start
16
00
15
00
Early
1:00 hours before the start
14
00
14
00
On time
Example input Expected output
leap
5
2
45
normal
11
6
44
2.11. Write a poker-hand program. It should ask the user to
enter 5 cards. The program must then tell the user what hand
does he have (e.g. flush, quads, etc.).
• use ‘S’ for spades, ‘C’ for clubs, ‘H’ for hearts, ‘D’ for
diamonds
• use the numbers between 2 and 14 for cards values (J=11,
Q=12, K=13, A=14).
• If you don’t know how poker hands work, find a short
[tutorial here](https://www.cardplayer.com/rules-of-poker/
hand-rankings “Markdown Tutorial”) .

Example input Expected output
C8 C7 C6 C5 C4 straight flush
H11 D11 S11 C11 D7 four of a kind
D3 C11 S8 H4 S2 high card